Determination of the paintablity of any sealant is the responsibility of the applicator.
In general, Silicone sealants will not accept paint. But if one should, the paint is unlikely to perform. All sealants other than silicones would be expected to accept paint. However, given the multitude of different paints and different sealants, It is left to the applicator to perform tests to determine if the selected paint will perform with the selected sealant.
With the exception of latex sealants, the sealant should be allowed to cure throughout before applying paint (a few days to as long as two weeks). The allowable time before painting a latex sealant varies with the particular sealant and can be as little as 30 minutes to as long as a few days.